2020 焦点前瞻:读懂跨链技术的核心,了解区块链互操作性

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所属分类:区块链

撰文:Lucas Nuzzi(加密资产研究机构 Digital Asset Research 联合创始人兼技术总监)

编译:詹涓

来源:链闻

 

BENWENWEILIANWENTUICHUDE「2020 JIAODIANQIANZHAN」XILIEWENZHANGDEYIPIAN。

2019 NIANSHI Cosmos SHENGTAIQIBUDENIANFEN。SUIZHE Cosmos Hub HE IRISnet ZAI 2019 NIANSHANGBANNIANSHANGXIAN,「KUALIAN」CHENGWEIGAINIANDUREMENGAINIANZHIYI。BUGUO,WULUNSHI Cosmos ZUIZHONGYAO、YEZUIZHIDEQIDAIDEZUJIAN「KUALIANTONGXUNXIEYI IBC」,HAISHILINGWAIYIGEJUXINGKUALIANXIANGMU Polkadot,ZHENZHENGDEJIAOFUQIDOUZAI 2020 NIAN——ZHENZHENGDE「KUALIAN」XIANGGUANHEXINJISHUDEFAZHAN,YINGGAIKANXIANG 2020 NIAN。

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然而,尽管有这些相似之处,以太坊智能合约并没有可靠的机制来验证比特币事务是否得到充分确认,反之亦然。因此,我们今天存在大量的区块链网络,尽管基础上说,它们拥有相同的共识体系,但是由于缺乏用于传输这些证明的健壮的传输层,它们被孤立了起来。这一认识催生出后来被称为区块链互操作性的解决方案的发展,特别是在过去三年中,其复杂性级别各不相同。

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LANSEWEIZHINENGHEYUEPINGTAIZHISHU,HONGSEWEIHUCAOZUOXINGZHONGJIEZHISHU

 

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WOMENRENWEI,YIXIAQIANZAIDEHAOCHUCUSHIKAIFARENYUANHEYANJIURENYUANKAISHITANSUOQUKUAILIANHUCAOZUOXING:

  • 市场效率

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  • 可伸缩性

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  • 功能专业化

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  • 跨链预言机和身份体系

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  • 资产留置

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  • Generalized Mining 与治理

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实现区块链互操作性的多种方法

 

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FENBIEWEI:CELIAN /Relayer、LIANXIAYUANZIHUHUAN、LIANSHANGYUANZIHUHUAN、WANGLUOJIANHUCAOZUOXING

 

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可组合性 vs. 互操作性

 

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ZAIZHEIGEXINDELUXIANTUZHONG,XINBIAOLIANJIANGXINXIZHUANFADAOTEDINGDEFENPIAN,ZHEIXIEFENPIANKENENGDAIBIAODULIDE DApp HE / HUOZHUANMENDEJIAMIZICHAN。ZHEIKENENGHUIJIANSHAOSHIYONGDAIBISUOXUYAODEGAODUGONGNENGXING、CHENGXUHUAHELIUDONGXINGDEQUZHONGXINHUAJIAOYISUODEXUQIU,YINWEISUODINGZAIXINBIAOLIANZHONGDEZICHANKEYIZAIZHUANMENDEFENPIANZHONGYIHECHENGZICHANDEXINGSHICHUANGJIANCHULAI。BUGUO,YITAIFANGDEDICENGZHISHAOHAIXUYAOJINIANSHIJIANCAINENGBUSHUZHEIXIEJISHU。

Polkadot:一个可组合性的解决方案

 

Gavin Wood SHIYITAIFANGDEZHUYAOSHIXIANZHE,YESHI Polkadot DECHUANGSHIREN,TASHIZUIZAOJIANGQUZHONGXINHUAYINGYONGCHENGXUGAODUKEZUHEXINGDEKUANGJIAGAINIANWANZHENGDITICHULAIDEYANJIURENYUANZHIYI。Gavin Wood ZAI 2016 NIANDE Polkadot BAIPISHUZHONGYINRULEYIGEXIANGDUIJIANDANDEJIAGOU,SHITUGUIBIYITAIFANGZAIWEIRAOFENPIAN、CHAOJILIFANGTIMOXING(hypercubes) HE Casper DEYANJIUBIANDEYUELAIYUEFUZASHISUOMIANLINDESHIXIANTIAOZHAN。ZUOWEIYIMINGHUOYUEDEYITAIFANGKAIFARENYUAN,Gavin Wood DUONIANLAIZAISHIXIANYITAIFANGDEZHONGXINSHEJIHEGENGGAIFANGMIANYONGYOUDIYISHOUDEJINGYAN。

TADEJIEJUEFANGANSHITONGGUOYUNXUXIANGTONGQUKUAILIANDEDUOGE「DIEDAI」(JIPINGXINGLIANDEFANGAN),ZAIBICIZHIJIANSHIXIANHUCAOZUO,JIANG Polkadot KAIFAWEIKEXUANFANGAN,CONGERZUIDAHUAKEZUHEXING。

ZICONGYINRU Polkadot YILAI,WOMENYIZHIMIQIEGUANZHUZHE Polkadot HEYITAIFANGZHEILIANGGEXIANGMULUXIANTUDEYANBIAN,BINGQIERAOYOUXINGWEIDIGUANCHADAO,SUIZHESHIJIANDETUIYI,YOUQISHIZAIYITAIFANGXIUGAILELUXIANTUZHIHOU,Polkadot HEYITAIFANGDEZONGTIJIAGOUSHIRUHEZHUJIANQUTONGDE。

JIUXIANG Polkadot DEZHONGJILIANYIYANG,YITAIFANGDEXINBIAOLIANJIANGCHONGDANGYIGESHUNIU,JIANGDUOGEFENPIANHUOPINGXINGLIANLIANJIEZAIYIQI。ZHEILIANGGESHUNIUHAIFUZEYANZHENGSHIWU、ZHONGJIXIAOXI,BINGZUOWEISUIJIYUYANJIZAIQUANYIZHENGMINGXIAXUANZEQUKUAIYANZHENGQI。ER Polkadot SIHUYECONGYITAIWANGNEILIJIEYONGLEXUDUOLINIAN。2018 NIAN 11 YUE,Polkadot FABULEQIQIJIANGONGSHIYINQING GRANDPA DEXIANGXIXINXI,DANGZHONGHENDUONEIRONGTIXIANLEYITAIFANGZAI Casper XIANGMUSHANGDEZHUYAOCHENGGUO。

YOULEFENPIAN、ZHONGJISHUNIUHEJIYU Casper DEGONGSHI,Polkadot HEYITAIFANGDELIXIANGBANBENWUYISHILEISIDE。RANER,JINGUANCUNZAIZHEIXIEJIAGOUSHANGDEXIANGSIZHICHU,Polkadot HAISHICONGTOUKAISHIGOUJIAN,YICUJINQIKEZUHEXING。ERYAOZAIYITAIFANGXIANYOUDEYINGYONGCHENGXUHEDAIBIHUAFUWUSHENGTAIXITONGSHANGSHIXIANKEZUHEXING,ZHEIJIANGXUYAODALIANGDEGONGCHENGHEXIEDIAOGONGZUO。

WEILEZUIDAHUAKEZUHEXING,Polkadot CHUANGJIANLE Substrate,ZHEISHIYIGEYONGYUCHUANGJIANYU Polkadot JIANRONGDEPINGXINGLIANDEKUANGJIA。TONGGUOZHEIGEKUANGJIA,BUBICONGTOUGOUJIANSUOYOUDEWANGLUOHEGONGSHIDAIMA,LEISIYU ERC20 DAIBIKEYILIYONGYITAIFANGXIANYOUDEWANGLUOJICHUSHESHI,ERBUBIGOUJIANZIJIDEJICHUCENGYIYANG。BUTONGZHICHUZAIYU,Substrate YIJINGSHIXIANLEDABUFENGONGNENG,SUOYIZAISHANGMIANDAJIANDEGANJUEJIUXIANGMEIGE ERC DAIBIDOUYOUZIJIDULIDEWANGLUO,JUYOUDUTEDEGONGNENGHEYANZHENGQIJI。

HUCAOZUOXINGHEKEZUHEXINGZHIJIANDEQUBIEZAIZHEILIYOUQIZHONGYAO,YINWEIYUPUBIANDEKANFAXIANGFAN,Polkadot BINGBUSHIWEIQIAOJIEBUTONGDEJIAMIHUOBIWANGLUO(RUBITEBIHEYITAIFANG)ERSHEJIDE。XIANGFAN,GAITUANDUIZHILIYUSHIJIYU Substrate DELIANWANQUANKEZUHE,DANZHINENGZAITAMENZHIJIANHUCAOZUO。

JINGUANTAMENQUESHIJIHUAJIANLIYITAOQIAOJIEHEYUE,NENGGOUJIANG Polkadot LIANJIEDAOQITAWANGLUO,DANBUKEFOURENDESHI,TAMENDEZHUYAOJIAODIANFANGZAI Substrate SHANG。YINCI,Polkadot JIANGXUYAOKAIFARENYUANYOUJIDIQIANYIDAOGAIPINGTAI,BINGKAISHIZAIGAIPINGTAISHANGGOUJIANYINGYONGCHENGXU;ZHEISHIYITAIFANGHUALESANNIANSHIJIANCAISHIXIANDE。

JINGUANXIANG Aragon ZHEIYANGDESHUJUFUWUTIGONGSHANGCENGKAOLVZAI Polkadot SHANGJIANLIERJIWANGLUO(ZUIZHONG,Aragon XUANZELE Cosmos SHENGTAI),DANDADAOYUYITAIFANGXIANGCHENGDECAIYONGLVHEJIAZHIJILEI,HENKENENGXUYAOHENZHANGSHIJIAN。

CONGZHANGYUANLAIKAN,Polkadot DUIKEZUHEXINGDEGUANZHUKENENGHUILINGQIHUODEHUIBAO,DANGAIXIANGMUZAIZHONGDUANQIXIYINKAIFARENYUANSHI,KENENGHENNANHANWEIQIGUZHI,KAOLVDAOQI ICO ZIJINZAI Parity DUOZHONGQIANMINGCHUXIANLOUDONGHOURENGRANCHUZAISUODINGZHUANGTAI,QINGKUANGGENGSHIRUCI。JINGUANRUCI,ZHUIZONG Polkadot DEYANJIUJINZHANHAISHIHENYOUQUDE。

 

Cosmos:一个互操作性的解决方案

 

Cosmos ZAIHUCAOZUOXINGHEKEZUHEXINGFANGMIANCAIQULEGENGWUSHIDEFANGFA,TADEDUIZHANJIYUYITAOXIANYOUDEJISHU。SUIRANZHENGGEXIANGMURENGHENFUZA,DANTADEJICHUSHIJIYUYUNXINGZAI Tendermint SHANGDEYITAIFANGXUNIJI (EVM) DEHULIANSHILI,JIYIGE pBFT GONGSHIYINQING。GONGSHISHEJISHITONGGUOZHONGJIEJISHIXIANHUCAOZUOXINGDEZUIZHONGYAOYUANSUZHIYI,Cosmos TUANDUICONG 2014 NIANQIJIUKAISHIZAI Tendermint SHANGGONGZUO。

JINGUANYITAIFANGHE Cosmos ZAIGUANJIANSHIXIANSHANGCUNZAICHAYI,BIRUBUTONGDESHUJUJIEGOU、XULIEHUAGESHIHESHUZIQIANMINGSUANFA,JIANYU EVM ZUOWEIYEJIEZUIZHUYAODEXUNIJIDEDIWEI,Cosmos XUANZESHIYONG EVM NENGDAILAIGENGHAODEHUCAOZUOXING,BINGYOULIYUZHICHIJICHUSHESHI。

Tendermint HE EVM DEJIANDANJIEHE,YESHI Cosmos NENGGOULIYONGXIANYOUDEYITAIFANGKAIFAGONGJUHEKAIYUANYINGYONGDESHENGTAIXITONG,DANRENGRANKEYITONGGUOFENPIANLAIGAISHANQIKEZUHEXING、HUCAOZUOXINGHEKESHENSUOXING。

Cosmos RUANJIANKAIFAGONGJUBAO (SDK) XIANGDANGYU Polkadot SHANGDE Substrate KUANGJIA。YU Substrate YIYANG,Cosmos SDK DEMUDESHITONGGUOJIANGGONGSHIHEWANGLUODAIMABIAOZHUNHUA,CUJINLIANJIEDAO Cosmos SHUNIUDEGEWANGLUODEKEZUHEXING。SDK BEISHEJIWEIFUWUYUYIGESHENGTAIXITONG,ZAIZHEIGESHENGTAIXITONGZHONG,GEZHONGKAIYUANMOKUAI(RUYINSICHAJIANHUOYONGHUSHENFENJIEJUEFANGAN)KEYIGENJUXUYAOTIANJIADAOYINGYONGCHENGXUZHONG。GAIXITONGDEYIGEBIBUKESHAODEZUCHENGBUFENSHIYIGEYINGYONGCHENGXUANQUANMOXING,YONGYUMIAOSHUYINGYONGCHENGXUDEGEGEMOKUAIANQUANQUANXIAN。

ZHEIZHONGQUANXIANSHITONGGUODUIXIANGGONGNENG (ocaps) SHIXIANDE。JIANDANLAISHUO ocaps KEYIYIBIANCHENGFANGSHIFANGZHIEYIHUOYOUQUEXIANDEMOKUAIGENGGAITEDINGZHUANGTAI,BIRUZHUNBEIJINYUEHUOHEYUESUOYOUQUAN。

WOMENFAXIAN,ZHEIZHONGSHIXIANKEZUHEXINGHEYINGYONGCHENGXUANQUANXINGDEFANGFAFEICHANGYOUQU,YINWEIZAIGUOQUJINIANLI,YITAIFANGSHANGGAODUFUZADEZHINENGHEYUESUOJUYOUDEBUKEYUCEXING,YINFALEDALIANGGONGJI。RANER,opcaps BINGBUSHIWANNENGDE,YINWEIKAIFARENYUANRENGRANXUYAOSHIDANGDIDINGYIMOKUAIZHIJIANDEJIAOHU。

CHULEKEZUHEXINGZHIWAI,Cosmos HAIGAISHULEQIWANGLUOJIANGRUHECHULI Cosmos Hub HEWAISHENGWANGLUOZHIJIANDEHUCAOZUOXING。TAMENWEIJIEJUEHUCAOZUOXINGWENTITICHUDEFANGANBAOKUOZAI Cosmos Hub HEYITAIFANGDENGWAISHENGWANGLUOZHIJIANYINRUEWAIDEZHONGJIEQUKUAILIAN,JI Peg Zone (LIANWENZHU:YIBEIFANYIWEI「GUAGOUFENQU」)。ZUOWEIZHONGJIETI,Peg Zone KEYIWEIGONGZUOZHENGMINGQUKUAILIANTIGONGJINGJIZUIZHONGXING(JIQUKUAIDEBUKENIXING)DEGAILVBAOZHENG。

LIRU,DANGYIGESHIWUBEIBAOHANZAIYITAIFANGQUKUAIZHONGYIQIQIAOJIEDAO Cosmos SHI,Peg Zone ZAIQUERENYOUXIAOZHIQIAN,HUIYINGYONG 100 GEQUKUAIQUERENZUOWEIZUIZHONGXINGYUZHI。ZHEIZHONGZUIZHONGXINGJIANCHADIANJIANGDILEZAIQUKUAILIANZHONGZUHUO 51% GONGJISHIJIANZHONG peg LIANSHANGSHIWUBEIHUIFUDEGAILV。ZHEIZHONGZHONGJIETIDEYIGEMINGXIANHAOCHUZAIYU,TAJIANHUALEDUIJIAOCHALIANZICHANDETUOGUAN。SUOYOU Cosmos YONGHUTONGGUOYIGEJIZHONGDEDUOZHONGQIANMINGZHINENGHEYUEQIANBAOGONGXIANGYUE,CONGERCUJINLELIUDONGXINGDELIURUHELIUCHU。

QITAXIANGMU,BAOKUO Polkadot,YECHANGSHILELEISIDEJIAGOU。ZUIJIN,Loom WANGLUOLIYONGLEJIYUYITAIFANGDECELIAN Plasma,WEIYITAIFANGYONGHUTIGONGLEISIDEZHONGJIE。KAOLVDAOTONGGUOZHONGJIESHIXIANHUCAOZUOXINGBEIZHENGMINGSHIJIANJIJUTIAOZHANXINGDERENWU,WOMENQIWANGZHEIZHONG「Peggy」DEFENCENGJIEGOUNENGGOUCHENGWEITONGGUOZHONGJIETISHIXIANKUALIANHUCAOZUOXINGDELANTU。

 

Peggy:通过中介体实现互操作性的蓝图

 

WAIBUDEQUKUAILIANHE Peg Zone JIANGTONGGUOLIANGZHONGZHUYAOXIEYILIANJIEDAO Cosmos SHUNIU,FENBIESHI「QUKUAILIANJIANTONGXUNXIEYI,HUOKUALIANTONGXUNXIEYI」 (Inter-Blockchain Communication, IBC) HE「YINGYONGCHENGXUQUKUAILIANJIEKOU」(Application Blockchain Interface, ABCI) XIEYI。IBC XIEYIBENZHISHANGSHIYIGEXIAOXICHUANDIXITONG,ZHUIZONGSUOYOULIANJIEQUYUDEZHUANGTAIHUOZONGYUE。YOUYURENHETONGXINDOUXUYAOYANZHENG,Cosmos (YOUQISHI Tendermint)DELINGYIGEZHONGYAOFANGMIANSHI ABCI XIEYI,TAZUOWEIYIGEWANGLUOTAOJIEXIEYIYUNXING,JIANG Tendermint GONGSHIYINQINGYUPINGTAISHANGDEGEZHONGYINGYONGCHENGXULIANJIEQILAI,TONGGUOZHEIGEJIEKOU,KEYIRANGYINGYONGCENGHEDIXIANDEGONGSHICENGJIWANGLUOCENGJINXINGTONGXINDUIHUA。

ZAI Peggy DEQINGKUANGXIA,IBC KONGZHIYONGHUZIJINZAIYITAIFANGZHIJIANDELIURUHELIUCHU,ER ABCI CHULIGUANYUZHEIXIEJIAOYIYOUXIAOXINGDEGONGSHI。KEYITONGGUOZHEIGESHILILEJIEGAIJIZHI:Alice ZAI Cosmos ZHONGDE Ethermint Zone (LIANWENZHU,JIYITAIFANGDEYITIAODAILILIAN,TONGGUOTAKEYISHIXIANYITAIFANGYU Cosmos LIANDELIANJIE)YOUZIJIN,BINGQIEXIWANGXIANGYITAIFANGFASONGDAIBI。TONGGUO IBC,Alice KEYIJIANGZHEIXIEZIJINCONGTASUOZAIDE Zone ZHUANDAO Peggy DE Peg Zone。YUYITAIFANGDETUOYUANQUXIANSHUZIQIANMINGSUANFA (ECDSA) BUTONG,Cosmos ZHONGDEQIANMINGSHISHIYONGAIDEHUAQUXIANSHUZIQIANMINGSUANFA (EdDSA) LAIWANCHENGDE,YINCI ABCI HUIJIANGQIANMINGFANYICHENGYITAIFANGKEYILIJIEHEYANZHENGDEYUYAN。

Peggy HAIYILAIYUZHONGJIQIWANGLUO,YOUZHONGJIQIJIANGCHENGPIDEJIAOYIHESUIFUDEFANYIQIANMINGFASONGDAOCHONGDANGBAOGUANRENDEYITAIFANGZHINENGHEYUE。YIDANFABU,Cosmos YONGHUJIUKEYIZAIYITAIFANGWANGLUOZHONGJINXINGJIAOYI。

 

 

JIANZHENGREN (Witnesses) SHIZAIYITAIFANGSHANGYUNXINGWANZHENGJIEDIANDE Cosmos YONGHU,TAMENFUZEJIANGYITAIFANGZHONGFASHENGDEZHUANGTAIBIANHUATONGZHI Peggy。MEIGE 100 GEQUKUAISHENGCHENGJIANGE,JIUHUIYOUMUJIZHEZHENGMINGYIXILIEBEIFASONGHUI Peggy DEYITAIFANGSHIWUYIJINGZHONGJIE。TONGGUOZHONGJIQIHEMUJIZHE,Cosmos KEYITIGONGYITAIFANGDEWANQUANSHUANGXIANGXING。

WOMENHUAIYIZHEIZHONGTONGYONGMOSHINENGFOUZAITONGGUOZHONGJIEDEHUCAOZUOXINGLINGYUDEDAOFAZHAN,XIANG Peggy ZHEILEIJIEJUEFANGANDEQUANMIANBUSHURENGRANXUYAOSHIJIAN。ZAIZHEIYIDIANSHANG,Cosmos DE IBC XIEYIRENGRANXUYAOGAIJIN,GENJUWOMENDUI Peggy DAIMAKUDELEJIE,ZHISHAOHAIYAOYINIANCAINENGSHIXIANSHUANGXIANGXING。JINGUANRUCI,Cosmos YIJINGJIEJINYUFABUYIGEJIYU Peggy、CONGYITAIFANGDAO Cosmos DEDANXIANGQIAOLIANG,GUANCHARENMENRUHESHIYONGTA,YINGGAIHUIHENYOUYISI。

Digital Asset Research 授权链闻发表该研究报告。

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